这马马虎虎苹果已经得到了相当的历史。

By莎拉Sedghi
2019年8月8日
lukbar /盖蒂图片社

人love to hate Red Delicious apples. You can’t cook with them because they’ll fall apart, the skin requires extra chewing to break down, and the flesh is dotted with mealy craters. Biting into a Red Delicious apple is a guessing game. If you’re not careful, you’ll end up eating sad, brown pieces.

But it also feels like the Red Delicious is everywhere: in grocery stores, in your child’s government-mandated lunch. And even though it’s not the ideal apple-eating experience, the Red Delicious is likely the firstapple varietythat pops into your head.

在“红元帅”的绰号不是任命为蒙蔽消费者。这不是一个格陵兰冰岛或情况。这是一个流行的苹果125年。只是,这不是不再是什么它曾经是。

所有蛇果苹果的伟大祖先最早是由杰西·希亚特,奎克农民在秘鲁,爱荷华州销售。希亚特被称为甜,芳香四溢的苹果鹰眼,并把它卖给了斯塔克兄弟的苗圃于1894年在其新的所有权,鹰眼成了美味。在他的书Apples of Uncommon Character,Rowan Jacobsen notes that “the fruit kept well and had an inoffensive, pleasantly aromatic taste. Most of all, it was very sweet. What it wasn’t was solid red; instead, it had a light pink blush, reddish stripes, and a less pronounced strawberry shape, making it a pretty generic apple.”

Watch:如何使苹果馅饼月光

金冠是在1914年开发后,美味的苹果的名字默认为红蛇果。它确实是美味,直到20世纪50年代,当它的成功交错于大规模生产。味道不再重中之重,让位给效率和均匀性。谁嫁接种植者(克隆)红元帅苹果找到了较深的苹果,得到明白无误的蛇果色调。

“Traditionally, growers were paid based on the redness of the skin of their apples,” Jacobsen writes. “Flavor was not evaluated. Red Delicious earned a premium over other apples, and the reddest Red Delicious earned the highest premium.”

这些相同的苹果还设有皮肤较厚,这变相的瘀伤和取得的成果更易于运输。该蛇果随之而来是适销对路,同时向业界和消费者。

这些嫁接苹果开发了一些不良的品质为好,如多开孔纹理促进了水果的mealiness。这同样厚的皮肤,帮助蛇果承受发售,坐在冷藏长达1年,因此也不会产生最愉快的饮食体验。

“The Red Delicious we have today is very much a different apple,” says Simon Thibault, journalist and author of厨房和口感:回忆和重新发现阿卡迪亚食品。今天,它是其自身成功的受害者。

Who, then, is buying Red Delicious apples? Institutions, such as schools and health centers, that need to satisfy nutritional needs. If there’s a basket of free fruit for employees to snack on at your office, chances are it’s stuffed with Red Delicious apples.

“The apple is the easiest, most ubiquitous thing that can be transported,” Thibault says. “It wasn’t regular consumers, it was large industries that were buying these things.”

红元帅苹果的生命周期是这样的:第一,被称为运动支分支通过一个名为嫁接过程中传播。这支脉最终挂果,这是过早采摘,因此它可以在寒冷或控制的存储成熟。一旦一个苹果被拾取,它开始产生的乙烯气体,这使得熟水果或腐烂。“[乙烯是]为什么你不把香蕉旁边的苹果,” Thibalut说。“这是在零售空间永久夏天的错觉的一部分。你也许可以让一个说法,苹果在这个寓言中最糟糕的。”

Ethylene is also the catalyst for controlled storage, which either needs to be cold or ventilated enough to prevent off-gassing among the fruit. Those apples can stay there for up to a year before they’re shipped out to stores and cafeterias.

Other apple varieties have different standards. The Pink Lady, for example, must fully ripen on the tree before it’s harvested and has to be picked in a specific way. “Every stage of its grown and sales is regulated,” Jacobsen writes. Thibault, who grew up on a hobby orchard, remembers watching his father pick Honeycrisp apples. “There was a very particular way of taking it off the tree,” he says. The care that goes into these varieties doesn’t just affect their cost, but also the way consumers and retailers treat them. There’s an entire culture of expectations surrounding them, and it’s exactly what we lost in the Red Delicious.

这并不是说,红蛇果完全是坏的。它的品种,如帝国,这是在美国排名前10位的销售商之一,和富士,这很可能是世界上最流行的品种的亲本。

“Outside of the United States, everyone knows that we live on Planet Fuji,” Jacobsen writes. “This is why more than 70 perfect of the apples grown in China are Fuji—and China produces about half the world’s apples, eight times that of the second-place United States.”

去年,蛇果苹果的50年的统治作为全国最热门的苹果终于结束了, giving way to the Gala. Jacobsen predicts that the “zombie variety” will be forgotten in two decades, as “no one has planted Red Delicious in years.” But some farms still grow the heirloom Hawkeye, and if you’re lucky enough, you can try the original, and truly tasty, Red Delicious.

即使你不能访问一个果园,或苹果的农民,还是有办法避免不合适的苹果。蒂博建议多品种的苹果,而不仅仅是一个购物,这样你就可以品尝到各地,发现你最喜欢什么。

另一个要考虑的重要的事情是季节性。季节性苹果新鲜,而且很可能会口感更好。但是,你也可以用季节性因素来判断,当一个苹果将开始变坏。此前苹果的季节,这是收获在八月和九月初,特别娇嫩,应迅速消耗。后来季苹果将举行了更长的时间。

没有两个苹果都是一样的,不管是什么老说:“这就像比较苹果和苹果”可以表示。他们中的一些最好的出炉,而其他人将不能成立,如果他们都熟。

“Give yourself the liberty to accept that different things will create different textures and flavors,” Thibault says. “Then you can start to teach yourself what to pick.”

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